Are Depression & Anxiety Rooted in Grief?

“My heart is in anguish within me; the terrors of death have fallen upon me.
Fear and trembling come upon me, and horror overwhelms me.”
Psalm 55:4-5

Psalm 55 is a passage I use frequently when counseling those who have experienced deep loss and trauma. David’s words are so honest and raw. He doesn’t cheapen or minimize his suffering. He asks God the hard questions, and he laments the injustice of experiencing betrayal and loneliness. My clients are sometimes surprised by these verses, because David’s words may seem harsh, critical and even a bit sacreligious. But he gives us a kind of template into the heart of what it takes to grieve well. 

When I meet with someone who feels depressed, anxious or angry, I try to ask questions that consider the possibility of grief. This can be a very important distinction, because I don’t want to dive into discussion about strategies for managing anxious thoughts or depressed mood if someone actually needs to process pain with me and before the Lord. I have discovered that when a person has the space to approach her distressing emotions and consider how they are affecting her life, she will then be better equipped to walk forward in wisdom. So it’s not just a matter of identifying the feeling and then finding a solution for it – it’s a matter of entering ‘the house of mourning’ (Ecclesiastes 7:4).

The most common distressing emotions related to grief are sadness, anger and worry. When these feelings surface, we should consider the signals they are sending to us. 

Sadness includes a low mood and feelings of sorrow or despair. This is the most obvious feeling associated with grief, since a person is mourning the loss of something he or she holds dear. But we often ignore the sadness we feel over situations or things that we think shouldn’t be sorrowful. For example, a college graduate might not understand why he’s feeling sad upon entering the workforce. He believes he should be excited to be finished with school. But it makes sense that he would mourn the loss of college life, even while he’s excited about the future. When we are feeling sad, we should ask ourselves what’s prompting the sorrow. We need to be curious about what we believe about ourselves when we’re feeling sad, and we need safe spaces to share our pain.

When we feel anger, our bodies, minds and emotions are activated. We sense that something is wrong, and we long for justice. I don’t know about you, but I have heard many Christians say they were taught to quickly forsake anger. While I agree that we should not sin in our anger (Psalm 4:4), squelching it too quickly could lead to bitterness and doubt. I spend a lot of time in my counseling office encouraging clients to open the door to anger. I invite them to approach it and ask what anger might be trying to tell them. When it occurs, it’s a signal that something feels wrong inside. Ignoring that signal could bring about long-term consequences. I want my clients to ask themselves how anger manifests itself, what they believe about anger, and whether their anger is linked with the anger God feels toward injustice and evil. 

When I think about worry, I think about Jesus’ sermon in Luke 12:22-32. He reminds his listeners that they can trust God in the midst of turmoil, because He loves them and will provide for their needs. Jesus’ compassion is evident in the way he relates to people. When I’m sitting with someone who is worried, I don’t know what has led to her feelings of worry. Perhaps she has experienced the loss of a significant relationship or source of help, so now she senses a lack of future stability. I want to ask about what is causing worry, and I want her to have a safe space to share her concerns. She doesn’t need a solution – she needs compassion. 

I think we sometimes move too quickly to find a way out of our sorrow. We feel uncomfortable, and we want it to stop. But Psalm 34:18 says, “The Lord is near to the brokenhearted and saves the crushed in spirit.” If we refuse to acknowledge our brokenheartedness, how will we receive the comfort of the Lord? He longs to come toward us, but we must welcome Him into our grief. 

I have created a questionnaire that can help a person explore the emotions associated with grief. This resource is available to members of Chrisitan Trauma Healing Network. Click HERE to access it.

Exploring Values with Trauma Survivors

If a person has been a victim of abuse, neglect or other forms of relational trauma, she has been taught that she does not matter. Her value lies solely in what she can provide for someone else, and she is not free to pay attention to herself. A survivor often has what some call an ‘external locus of control,’ meaning that she views other people and situations as the arbiters of what matters. Part of the healing process includes beginning to see herself as someone who gets to decide what she values and needs, rather than expecting that she must always defer to the values and needs of others. 

When I work with an abuse survivor, I love getting to explore what she cares about. Many times she has trouble even identifying what she enjoys and needs. As the process goes along, though, she begins to see herself as someone who matters. She works to forsake the influence of an abuser, who treated her as less-than-human. She realizes that others do not get to decide who she is. 

As I hear her expressions of these sentiments, I begin asking about her values. I have a list of values that she can look at, and she circles the five most important to her. Then I want to know why she circled those particular values. Again, these questions can be difficult for her to answer because she is not accustomed to exploring what she cares about. So I’m moving slowly with her, giving her space to be curious. 

For example, a client may circle the value of ‘justice.’ When I ask her about this value, she shares that no one ever stood up for her when she was treated unjustly, so she wants to be a person who always stands up for others. Her trauma has motivated her toward something good, which we should celebrate. At the same time, there’s a chance this value could lead her into unhealthy territory if we don’t think well about it. She could be tempted to forsake her own deep need for healing because fighting for justice seems more powerful and meaningful to her. She needs a holistic view of her values. 

I ask questions about how the value of justice affects her daily choices and relationships. She may say something like, “I watch the news a lot and have strong thoughts and feelings about what the justice system should be doing to help people who are marginalized.” This gives me an in-road to a conversation about whether watching the news brings flourishing. Does she feel more empowered to help and pray for others, or is it discouraging and disillusioning? How much time does she spend thinking about what she’s seen on the news, and what does she do with the feelings of frustration and anxiety that come as a result?

Hopefully you can see how talking about a person’s values allows her to explore the motivations, thoughts, feelings and behaviors that spring from these values. Then we have the opportunity to think about how these values align with her faith. If she is a Christian, we can discuss how God views justice. We get to study Scripture and learn the ways our desires for justice reflect the heart of the Lord and point us toward our heavenly home. We also get to pay attention to the fact that justice cannot be completely fulfilled in a fallen world, which can cause frustration and even resentment. Every step in this process points us toward being more fully formed into the image of our Savior. What He values becomes what we value.

If you’d like to utilize the tool I’ve created for understanding values, you can click HERE to become a member of Christian Trauma Healing Network. It’s only $15 per month, and you’ll receive new content every month to utilize in your care for others. In addition, our members are invited to a monthly online networking meeting to collaborate and encourage one another, AND you receive a 20% discount on all webinars we offer. We hope you’ll consider joining our community!

Are You a Compulsive Helper?

Compulsive behavior includes thoughts, urges or behaviors that persist despite negatively affecting health, job or relationships. Normally when we think of compulsions, we imagine a person who constantly checks the locks on doors or washes their hands all day long. But any behavior that is persistent and includes negative effects can be considered compulsive. So is it possible to be a compulsive helper?

My answer is yes. I can say this with confidence because my behavior as a helper was incredibly compulsive for many years. This doesn’t mean I disliked helping but felt obligated to do so – it means I had to help when I saw a need, regardless of whether it would be beneficial. This played out in many different settings: advising people about their purchases at the grocery store, agreeing to mentor four different people at the same time,  and volunteering for too many projects at my kids’ schools. And then I joined a church staff and started a private counseling practice. Imagine the opportunities to over-commit!

People who help others are often very compassionate and merciful. They deeply desire to serve in whatever way they can. This desire is often sparked by their own stories and experiences, including their testimonies of salvation. This type of person is essential in God’s kingdom as he uses his gifts to encourage and care for others. But motivation really matters. A person who compulsively says yes to helping opportunities is highly motivated by some sort of need. Often the compulsive helper is motivated by a need to feel loved and special, or by a need to have purpose and significance in life. 

These needs are focused inward in order to create personal security. Compulsive helpers usually feel genuine compassion toward those who are struggling, but the urge to help is fueled by some sort of deficiency rather than by Christ’s love. If a person serves others out of a need to be upheld, secured or loved, he is traveling a dangerous path that may damage others and himself. 

I was not aware of my compulsive helping behavior until I began to lose heart and experience extreme fatigue in ministry. I was advised to slow down and delegate opportunities to others, and I found these things almost impossible to do. Why? I had built an identity around serving people, so I would have no sense of self if I stopped. 

If this story seems at all familiar to you, I encourage you to spend time answering the following questions:

  • When a need arises, do I tend to assume I will be the one to meet it?
  • What types of needs do I believe I have to meet? Why do I believe I need to be the one to meet them?
  • How long has my helping compulsion been happening? When did it start?
  • What motivates my urge to help others?
  • How and when do I rest? Do I need to add more rest to my life?

Taking a hard look at ourselves can bring clarity and wisdom for how to move forward. Compulsively helping is not sustainable – it will bring about burnout or resentment (or both). Ask the Lord to search you and know your heart (Psalm 139:23). He will show you the truth. As you see yourself more clearly, ask Him to help you process the motivations of your heart honestly. Then ask Him to give you a way forward.

A few things started happening as I did this process. First, I understood more clearly the necessity of Sabbath. The whole point of Sabbath is for us to relinquish control and trust God with what is left undone. I desperately needed this habit of grace in my life. Second, I began to pay attention to the ways in which ministry had become obligatory. I recognized my own resentment and worked toward forgiveness and healing. And third, I began to notice the value and beauty of saying ‘no’ to opportunities that might not fit my gifts or capacity. This included learning to celebrate my limits and be grateful that I could not and should not do everything.

Forsaking my compulsive helping means that I have to listen to the Holy Spirit in my decision-making. Now when an opportunity comes my way, I choose not to say ‘yes’ right away, even if it’s something I’ve always wanted to do. Instead, I take time to pray and ask the Lord to show me whether He wants me to say ‘yes.’ I try to remember that Jesus did not say ‘yes’ to every opportunity – in fact, he said ‘no’ to many people who wanted to be healed or served in some way. The only way to know the best decision is to listen to the voice of the Father. 

My prayer is that the love of Christ will compel us above all else (2 Corinthians 5:14), and that we will serve out of an overflow of the Holy Spirit’s sanctifying work in our lives. When we experience the need for approval, significance and love, may we turn to the Lord and ask for His love to nourish and strengthen us.

What Are Trauma Triggers?

When someone has experienced trauma, they are very often left with residual and long-lasting effects. One of these effects is what we commonly call ‘triggers.’ A trigger is essentially an instinctual response based on external stimuli that associate with the trauma a person has experienced. Any sensation (such as smell, sound, or touch), situation or reminder could bring about such a response. As you might imagine, this makes triggers very unpredictable and potentially scary for the trauma survivor. Imagine never knowing when you might be suddenly compelled to run away, cry, scream or attack. Many trauma survivors live with this uncertainty every day. 

If you have a loved one, client or fellow church member who experiences being triggered, it may seem very scary for you as well. You want to be helpful, and you certainly don’t want to make things worse. Let’s explore some triggers that are common to trauma survivors in order to help you better understand and come toward someone in their moment of need.

What’s happening when a person is triggered?

When a person is triggered, an automatic bodily system kicks into gear. The body and brain communicate with each other in a split second, indicating that danger is imminent. A trauma survivor doesn’t have to be in actual danger for this system to kick in. When the brain perceives an indicator that is similar enough to the trauma itself, it will do its job to protect the body from harm. 

Here’s an example: let’s say you were bit by a snake when you were young. Then as an adult you are walking through the woods with friends and spot something long and thin on the path ahead. You immediately feel a burst of adrenaline and have an instinct to run away, even before you know whether a snake is on the path. That’s a trigger. Your instinct to run supersedes your logical decision-making.

When trauma occurs, the senses pick up sharp details about the environment. Those sensations are recorded in the brain for the purpose of future protection. That’s why a survivor of combat trauma might react strongly when a car backfires, even though he knows there are no guns or bombs in his vicinity. The response is automatic. 

Here are some other things to know about triggers. These experiences are highly unique to every individual. Just as we cannot predict when triggers will occur, we cannot create a list of triggers that every survivor is likely to experience. In addition, something that triggers a person at one time may never disturb her again. You can imagine how maddening this can feel to survivors – never being able to avoid the triggers completely because there is no discernable pattern. 

Finally, it’s important to note that triggers often happen in public settings. This means that the survivor inadvertently draws attention to herself in the moment of disruption, which can be embarrassing and can even amplify the fight/flight response. 

What are some common triggers?

Trauma survivors can be triggered by all kinds of things. Sometimes a person is triggered by being touched (especially in a way that is similar to a touch experienced during trauma), and sometimes loud noise or large crowds can trigger a fight/flight response. Many trauma survivors are triggered by specific smells, tastes or sounds, as well as situations and locations that remind them of their trauma.

Remember that a trigger is a response to something that reminds the survivor of his or her trauma, which means that the fight/flight response is activated in the same way it was activated during the trauma itself. So in any way that a person may respond to a traumatic event, they may also respond to triggers. A common response may be to withdraw or detach from people and situations, which is a ‘flight’ response. If a person’s ‘fight’ response kicks in, he may use words or actions to exert himself toward getting safe. Examples could be yelling, hitting, running, etc. If a person’s ‘freeze’ response kicks in, he may feel numb or unable to move or think. 

No matter how a person is triggered, there are some specific ways you can approach them in order to support them and help slow down their body’s automatic responses. I recommend that you stay calm and seek to move and speak slowly. Do not touch them without permission, and ask them how you can serve them. Attune to their needs and remind them that you are there to provide support. I also recommend that you follow up with them after the trigger has subsided. This encourages the person that you want to continue to be a safe person and serve them in whatever way you are able. 

Finally, compassion is paramount when someone is triggered. The survivor needs empathy and support above all, and any friend, neighbor, co-worker or loved one can be that supportive person. 

There are some specific techniques you can utilize to help diffuse trauma triggers. Christian Trauma Healing Network is offering a webinar called “Diffusing Trauma Triggers.” Click below to learn more about this event.

The Father of Mercies Comes Near

“Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies and God of all comfort, who comforts us in all our affliction, so that we may be able to comfort those who are in any affliction, with the comfort with which we ourselves are comforted by God. For as we share abundantly in Christ’s sufferings, so through Christ we share abundantly in comfort too.” (2 Corinthians 1:3-5)

Mercy is defined as getting that which we don’t deserve. If I get pulled over for speeding and the officer lets me off with a warning, we would say he had mercy on me. He gave me the gift of passing on an offense that should have cost me time and money.

From very early in the Bible, God identified Himself with the label of “merciful.” In Exodus 34:6, God passed before Moses and said these words to him: “The Lord, the Lord, a God merciful and gracious, slow to anger, and abounding in steadfast love and faithfulness.” This phrasing of God’s character can then be found all throughout the Old Testament. The Israelites repeated it to each other and to their children.

We see hints of this same language in 2 Corinthians, but Paul calls God “the Father of mercies.” What does this mean? If He is the Father of mercies, that means He created mercy in its essence. It comes from Him. But we also notice that the word is plural (‘mercies’), meaning there are many kinds of mercy that God has created for His children. His mercy is diverse based on what we need at any given time. Paul then specifically includes that He is the “God of all comfort.” Comfort is a form of God’s mercy that is demonstrated specifically when His children experience trial and suffering.

God’s comfort has been dear to my heart all my life. I experienced lots of fear and anxiety in my childhood and teenage years. When I first read Proverbs 18:10, I clung to it: “The name of the Lord is a strong tower; the righteous man runs into it and is safe.” Despite the many fears I faced, I believed the Lord was my leader and protector. But I also learned something that eventually proved untrue: If I trust the Lord, terrible things won’t happen to me.

When I was 17, I was sexually assaulted. Everything I thought I knew about myself, others and even God seemed to be turned upside down. I was forced to look sin and suffering dead in the face, and what I discovered is that it comes to all people, no matter how well they perform. 

I was also forced to contend with what I thought was true of God. I believed He was a merciful God, that He protected His children. So how could this have happened? As painful and heartbreaking as it was (and still is) that I experienced assault and all the consequences of it, that experience opened up a door in my heart.

It took quite a while for me to walk through the door. I felt really stuck for a long time. But all the while I felt the Lord calling me forward into something new. When I finally opened my heart and mind to healing, I began to see Jesus again.

When I was in my twenties, someone wise reminded me that Jesus suffered the most horrific assault that could ever happen – abuse of all kinds. He was mocked, spit on, beaten, stripped naked and laughed at, and physically exposed to everyone watching. In the Garden of Gethsemane, Jesus asked the Father to spare him from this abuse if possible. He didn’t want to experience it, but he was willing to do it. Why?

Hebrews 12:2 says he did it “for the joy set before him.” What was that joy? The joy that carried Jesus through his crucifixion was the New Covenant. The creation of a new family to bring into his Father’s kingdom. The possibility of reconciling our relationship to God so that we could be united to Him forever. The cross is a literal picture of how much Jesus loves us, and how much the Father loves us (who was willing to send His only Son through such horror in order to adopt us.)

Because Jesus experienced every kind of suffering, including abuse, I can be assured that He understands and is walking with me through my suffering. Jesus’ mercy means that when I’m overwhelmed and tired of fighting and grieved to my core, He’s experiencing all of that with me. And He has suffered so that my suffering will only be temporary.

Hebrews 4:14-16 says, “Since then we have a great high priest who has passed through the heavens, Jesus, the Son of God, let us hold fast our confession. For we do not have a high priest who is unable to sympathize with our weaknesses, but one who in every respect has been tempted as we are, yet without sin. Let us then with confidence draw near to the throne of grace, that we may receive mercy and find grace to help in time of need.”

Jesus is our great high priest. He leads us in our faith and has made the ultimate sacrifice for our sin. He leads us into the throne room of grace, where we receive mercy from the Father. And we are invited to enter that place in any and every moment of need.

In walking through that door of healing, I learned that God hates abuse and suffering of all kinds. He created a world that was meant to be free from these things. When sin entered, it fractured everything. But when Jesus came and took the penalty for all sin and suffering, you and I were given the right to be called children of God. This doesn’t mean suffering ends, but it means we are not alone in our suffering. We have a great high priest, king and shepherd through it all. We still have to fight, but now we have the weapons of spiritual warfare. We are equipped with what we need to sustain us till we get home.

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